The present list of standard terminology of Persian Medicine has been prepared by a group of experts in Persian Medicine and English language in order to promote using standard equivalents for Persian Medicine terms and pave the way for indexing these terms in the MeSH Database.

Term IDTermTransliterationEnglish EquivalentShort DefinitionDescriptionRead More
1نضجnozj; nuḍǧcoctionRipening of matterPreparation of matter (via rheological change) for digestion, absorbtion, or purgation, either as a physiological process or as a therapeutic measure.
2منضجmonzej; munḍiǧcoctiveRipening agentAn agent (drug etc.) that modifies the consistency of humors and prepares them for purgation.
3طبیعتtabi’at; ṭabī‘ahnatureGoverning power of body1 Constitution, temperament 2 An inner power governing self-preservation, healing and functions of the body.
4بخارbokhār; būḫārvaporsuspended liquid particlesLiquid particles suspended in the air when heat affects the moist part of a substance
5روحruh, rūḥPneuma; SpiritTenuous vapory matterVapory matter formed from tenuous part of humors, categorized as natural, vital and psychic.
6ارواحarvāh; arwāḥ

Plural of rūḥ

7قوهqovve, quwwaFacultyThe ability to execute functionsThe capacity to execute (natural, vital and psychic) functions of the body
8قواqovā, quwā

Plural of quwwa

9دخانdokhān; duḫānSmokeSuspended solid particlesSolid particles suspended in the air when heat affects the dry part of a substance
10رطوبتrotūbat; ruṭūbah1. Moisture 2. Wetness1 Liquid matter 2 Quality of fluidity and flexibility1 Liquid matter in the body including humors and aqueous substances 2 The quality of fluidity and flexibility of matter
11رطوبت غریبهrotūbat-e gharībeExtraneous MoistureAbnormal moisture

Abnormal moisture created due to a shortage in the innate heat of the body

12رطوبت فضلیهrotūbat-e fazliyeExtra MoistureReserved moisture in some plantsThe moisture reserved in some plants which is not thoroughly blended with other components and is used for growth as required.
13رطوبت اولیهrotūbat-e avvaliyePrimary MoistureHumorAny of the four fundamental humors
14رطوبت ثانویهrotūbat-e sānaviyyeSecondary MoistureExtravascular moisture, precursor of organsThe moistures that result from the extravascular transformation of humors and partially become a part of the organs.
15رطوبت اصلیهrotūbat-e asliyyeInherent MoistureInherent MoistureInnate moisture at the outset of birth
16رطوبت غریزیrotūbat-e gharīzī

Radical Moisture

Innate moisture

The moisture that functions as the fuel for innate heat

17رطوبت اسطقسیهrotūbat-e ostoqossiyyeElemental MoistureMoisture binding particles of organsIt is the essential moisture that keeps the particles of organs together.
18محللmohallel; muḥallilResolventDissolving agentAn agent that can displace and disperse matters by virtue of its heat, and decompose them into their ingredients.
19تحلیلtahlīl; taḥlīlDissolutionEvacuation of matter by dissolvingSubtle evacuation of matter by dissolving and converting it into tiny particles (e.g., vapor)
20انکبابenkebāb; inkibābenkebāb; inkibābMedicinal steaming therapyTo treat an affected organ by holding it over the steam risen from a boiled or infused medicine
21نزلهnazleh; nazlanazleh; nazlaDescent of abnormal moistureDescent of abnormal moisture from the head down to pharynx, lungs or other organs
22غثیانghasayan; ġaṯayānNauseaNauseaThe sensation of unease and discomfort often perceived as an urge to vomit.
23سدهsodde; suddaObstructionObstruction in vessels or ductsAny (partial or total) blockage in small vessles or ducts caused by ductal contraction, intraductal accumulation of matter or extraductal pressure.
24امتلاءemtelā'; imtilā'PlethoraExcessive accumulation of matterExcessive accumulation of matter in the body associated with quantitative or qualitative abnormality that may result in sensation of heaviness or merely preceiving its effects when the accumulation is quantitative.
25خلطkhelt; ḫilṭHumorHumorThe wet and fluid matter yielded by the first digestion of food including blood, phlegm, chole, and melanchole.
26اخلاطakhlāt; aḫlāṭHumors (pl of Humor)Humors
27لطیفlatif; laṭīfTenuousFine and easily disintegratedThe attribute of a matter which is readily disintegrated leading to diluteness, flowability, friability, transparency, being easily affected through contact, or being absorbed by the body easily; COMPARE dense, thick, thin
28کثیفkasif; kaṯīfDenseDenseThe attribute of a matter (usually medicine) which is not readily disintegrated leading to density, stability, opacity, not being easily affected through contact or absorbed by the body; COMPARE thick, tenusous, thin
29جالیjālī; ǧālīAbstergentpolishing agentAn agent that wipes the surface of organ clean of viscid fluids
30رکنrokn; ruknElementPrimordial elementAny of the four elements which make up the material world, and into which matter is ultimately divisible. Their intermixture results in different temperaments. They include fire, air, water, and earth.
31ارکانarkān; arkānElements (pl of Element)
32حفظ الصحهhefz os-sehhe; ḥifẓ uṣ-ṣiḥḥaHealth preservationPreservation of health according to six essentials.Science of preventive health measures which includes application of the six essentials.
33جوهرjohar; ǧawharSubstanceSubsisting by itselfThat which subsists by itself; counterpart of accident.
34عرضaraz; ‘araḍAccident1 Contingent property 2 Disease/Sign/Symptom1 A property that the substance has contingently. 2 It is an unnatural state emerging following a disease or its cause. This state can itself be considered a disease, or a sign/symptom.
35گوهرgawharSee ǧawhar
36سردیsardīColdnessColdnessOne of the four primary qualities which is associated with density or causes condensation.
37سردsardColdColdThat which possesses or generates coldness potentially or actually.
38گرمیgarmīHotnessHotnessOne of the four primary qualities which is associated with sparsity and causes disunity.
39گرمgarmHotHotThat which possesses or generates hotness potentially or actually.
40تریtarīWetnessWetnessOne of the four primary qualities associated with fluidity and flexibility. COMPARE wetness (ruṭūbat)
41ترtarWetWetThat which possesses wetness.
42خشکیkhoshkīDrynessDrynessOne of the four primary qualities associated with stability and inflexibility.
43خشکkhoshkDryDryThat which possesses dryness.
44مسهلmoshel; mushilPurgativeEvacuating agent acting through intestinesAn agent (medicine or food) that penetrates the organs and facilitates the evacuation of abnormal humors from them, which would eventually be expelled from organs and vessels via the intestines
45ملینmolayyen; mulayyinLaxativeSoftening agentAn agent that softens stool and relieves constipation
46غلیظghaliz; ġalīẓThickThickThe attribute of a matter with high density or width; COMPARE dense, tenuous, thin
47رقیقraqīq; raqīqThinThin, diluteThe attribute denoting low density, diluteness or small width; COMPARE thick, dense, tenuous
48دقیقdaqīq; daqīqFineNarrow, delicateNarrow (e.g. pulse) or having tiny particles (e.g. powder)
49لزوجتlozujat; luzūǧaViscosityViscosity, viscidityThe resistance of a matter to deformation of shape or movement leading to the ability of being extended without disruption.
50هشاشتheshāshat; hišāšaBrittlenessCrispinessThe property of a matter that readily fractures when subjected to stress or heat.
51غرویتgharaviyyat; ǧarawiyyaAdhesivenessStickinessThe property of a matter that sticks to pores blocking a duct or adheres to surfaces covering them.
52مغریmoghrī; muġrīAdhesiveGlutinous matterOne that posesses adhesiveness.
53اکتحالektehāl; iktiḥālEyeliningEyelining with a soft powdery medicineApplying a soft powdery medicine (similar to kohl) to the edge of the eyelids.
54قیqey; qayyEmesisVomitEjecting matter from the stomach through the mouth.
55نبضnabz; nabḍPulseThrobbing of the arteriesA rhythmical contraction and expansion of the arteries as blood is propelled through them due to cardiac movement.
56حار غریزیhārr-e gharīzīInnate Hot (substances)Innate Hot (substances)The substances of radical moisture that function as the fuel for innate heat, or can act as the source of functions.
57حرارت غریزیharārat-e gharīzīInnate HeatInnate heatThe heat resulting from the natural burning of radical moisture.
58حرارت غریبهharārat-e gharībeExtraneous HeatAbnormal heatThe unnatural heat due to an internal or external cause and disturbing the functions.
59حرارت اسطقسیharārat-e ostoqossīElemental HeatHeat at the level of elementsIt is the essential heat at the level of elements that even survives death.
60حرارت عرضیharārat-e arazīAccidental HeatHeat accidental to the bodyThe heat contingently caused by an external (heat stroke, food, medicine, etc.) or internal origin (fever) that might positively or negatively affect the body.
61حرارت قاصرهharārat-e qāsereInadequate HeatHeat less than requiredThe heat which is less than the equable amount necessary for a process.
62اعتدالe'tedāl; i‘tidālEquabilityBeing balancedThe state of being balanced in quantity or quality that can lead to optimal functionality.
63آب زنābzanImmersion bathingImmersion bathingImmersing part(s) of the body for a specific duration in water which is usually warm and might be infused with medicine.
64احتراقehterāq; iḥtirāqTo burn (intr.), CombustionSeparation of parts due to heatThe seperation of wet and tenuous parts of the substance from the dense ones due to excessive heat (inside or outside of the body) leading to sublimation of the former and sedimentation of the latter.
65احراقehrāq; iḥrāqTo burn (tr.)Separating of parts due to heatSeparating the wet and tenuous parts of matter from the dense parts by virtue of excessive heat.
66دمdam; dammBloodBlood (of the four humors)One of the four humors; natural blood is red and very sweet, and of hot and wet quality. Its main function is to contribute to nutrition and growth. Unnatural blood can be divided into varieties according to taste, odor, color and consistency.
67دمویdamavī; damawīīSanguineRelated to Blood (the humor)Related to Blood (the humor)
68بلغمbalgham; balġamPhlegmPhlegm (of the four humors)One of the four humors; natural phlegm is white and mildly sweet, and of cold and wet quality. It can transform into Blood when necessary, nourishes some organs such as brain, lubricates joints and moisturizes organs. Unnatural phlegm can be divided into varieties according to taste, form and consistency.
69بلغمیbalghami; balġamīīPhlegmaticRelated to PhlegmRelated to Phlegm
70صفراsafrā; ṣafrāCholeYellow bile (of the four humors)One of the four humors; natural chole (yellow bile) is the froth of blood; it is yellowish red, light, of hot and dry quality, and has a sharply strong taste. A part of it flows with blood and the other flows to the gall bladder. It assists the flow of blood through narrow vessels and is responsible for the nutrition of organs such as the lungs, and stimulates passing of urine and stool. Unnatural bile can be divided into varieties according to taste, odor, color and consistency.
71صفراویsafrāvī; ṣafrāwīīCholericRelated to CholeRelated to Chole
72سوداsodā; sawdāMelancholeBlack bile (of the four humors)One of the four humors; natural melanchole (black bile or atrabile) is the sediment of blood, with a taste between sweet and astringent, and of cold and dry quality. It is stored in the spleen. It is responsible for the nutrition of such organs as the bones, contributes to the consistency of the blood, and stimulates the appetite. Unnatural atrabile is produced by the effect of excessive or insufficient heat on various humors.
73سوداویsodāvī; sawdāwīīMelancholicRelated to Melanchole
74قوباqūbā’; qawbā'Qūbā’A spectrum of dry and coarse skin conditionsA skin condition with dryness and coarseness and severe pruritus as its symptoms. Based on the responsible humor, the color of the lesion can be red, yellowish white or dark. Its description in TPM sources closely resembles eczema, various dermitites and psoriasis. Qūbā' in children can resemble atopic dermatitis. The secretions, if present, would be non-purulent.
75عروق غلاظorūq-e ghelāzThick VesselsMain pathways for the transfer of matterPathways responsible for transfer of matter in the body, in physiologic or pathologic conditions, along membranes including fascias, or as a part of the vascular, neural, and especially lymphatic systems.
76سببsabab; sababCauseAgent of health or diseaseIt is an agent (whether from inside or outside the body) that generates a new state (whether health or disease).
77بَخورbakhūr; baḫūrbakhūr; baḫūrMedicinal smoke or vaporA medicine which is burned or boiled to produce smoke or vapor for medicinal purposes.
78بُخورbokhūr; buḫūrbokhūr; buḫūrBurning or boiling (of bakhūr)Burning or boiling a substance for medical use of its smoke or vapor, respectively.
79صداعsodā'; ṣudā‘HeadacheHeadachePain in the head
80فصدfasd; faṣdPhlebotomyIncising of blood vessel, venesectionIncising blood vessels to evacuate blood for medical purposes
81رادعrāde'; rādi‘Restraining agentmedicine that restrains through condensationA medicine that prevents the inpouring of morbid matter to organs through condensation (by virtue of its coldness and astringency) of the organ and/or the matter flowing into it.
82قابضqābez; qābiḍAstringentContracting medicine; astringent taste1. medicine that shrinks the parts of organs and contracts tissues, resulting in blockage of ducts and/or retention of matter. 2. one of the nine tastes, creating a sense of contraction through shrinking of oral mucous membrane.
83استسقاestesqā'; istisqā'Dropsydiseases caused by accumulation of aquous, ventose or viscous matterA group of diseases that occur due to the accummulation of aquous, ventose or viscous matter within/between tissues or organs; it has three types: general dropsy, abdominal dropsy, tympanic dropsy.
84استسقای لحمیestesqā-ye lahmīGeneral dropsy, hyposcara, general pitting edemaAccumulation of viscous matter in flesh, a type of anasarcaAccumulation of (primarily) viscous matter in flesh, causing flabbiness, puffiness and pitting edema in the organ/tissue.
85استسقای زقیestesqā-ye zeqqīAbdominal dropsy, ascitesAccumulation of aqueous matter in peritoneal spaceAccumulation of (primarily) aqueous matter in peritoneal space, causing heaviness and distention in the abdomen.
86استسقای طبلیestesqā-ye tablīTympanitic dropsy, tympanitesAccumulation of ventose matter in the abdomenAccumulation of (primarily) ventose matter in the abdomen, causing its distention and a tympanic sound upon percussion.
87روح طبیrūḥ-e tebbīMedical Pneuma
88احتباس و استفراغehtebās va estefrāghRetention and EvacuationOne of The Six EssentialsIt is one of The Six Essentials, related to the retention of essential matter in and evacuation of waste matter from the body.
89استفراغestefrāgh; istifrāġEvacuationClearing the body of waste matterExpulsion of waste materials in natural manner (e.g. intercourse) or through medical interventions either via available options (e.g. vomit or sweat) or by newly created ways (e.g. venesection).
90احتباسehtebās; iḥtibāsRetentionKeeping of matter in the bodyKeeping of matter in the body as reserving (natural) or confinement (unnatural)
91سهرsahar; saharInsomniaInsomniaThe state of not being able to sleep as a disorder, i.e. Insomnia.
92انصبابensebāb; inṣibābInpouringPouring in of matterPouring of matter in an organ from a superior organ which is usually stronger and/or placed above.
93حقنهhoqne; ḥuqnaEnemaInjection into rectum or uterusA method for expulsion of matter through insertion of a fluid into the rectum or the uterus
94ملطفmolattef; mulaṭṭifAttenuantDisintegrating agentA medicine that, by virtue of its moderate heat, disintegrates thick / dense matter, rendering it dilute and porous.
95مراقmerāq; mirāqqAbdominal wallAbdominal wallAbdominal wall including skin and the connective tissues below it
96مصلحmosleh; muṣliḥAmelioratorModifying agentAn agent that ameliorates foods and drugs: either by resolving its harm, strenghtening its function, maintaining its potency, breaking its pungency, or by conveying medicine to organs to which drug delivery is difficult.
97قرحهqarhe; qarḥaUlcerPurulent woundAn infected purulent wound
98قبضqabz; qabḍ1. Contraction 2. Astringency1. Contraction 2. AstringencyContraction of tissue; quality of an astringent agent
99زحیرzahīr; zaḥīrzahīrProctitis accompanied by tenesmusA condition accomapnied by tenesmus of the rectum for urgent expelling of stool, usually including excreation of mucous and sometimes blood.
100نَطولnatūl; naṭūlPouring bath(Liquid) medicine to pour overA dosage form as a boiled medicine poured over an organ
101نُطولnotūl; nuṭūlBathe by pouringPouring a (liquid) medicineApplication of a liquid medicine by pouring it over the body
102مسامmasām; masāmPoresPores on body organsTiny openings on the surface of body organs through which the entering or exiting of certain materials is regulated.
103نوعno'; naw‘SpeciesA class of similar individualsThe taxonomic unit ranking below a genus and including similar individuals
104مفتحmofatteh; mufattiḥApertiveDeobstruent medicine, deoppilantMedicine that is used to dissolve and move matter stagnant in the organs' ducts, pores and cavities out, in order to remove blockage
105ریاضتrīyāzat; rīyāḏaExcercisePhysical activity requiring effortAny volitional physical activity that can bring about hyperventilation, increased heartbeat, and blushing of skin, carried out to sustain or improve health
106مجففmojaffef; muǧaffifDesiccativeDrying agentAny agent that removes moisture by attenuating and resolving it
107قیqey; qayyVomitThrowing upEjection of matter from the stomach through the mouth
108امتلا به حسب قوهemtelā' be ḥasab-e qovveQualitative PlethoraPlethora caused by a change in quality of matterA change in the quality or quantity of humors (or other bodily matters) in such a way that the signs of quality (i.e., quadruple qualities) intensification become evident in the body, without generating the physical effects of the increase in quantity, such as pressure and distension.
109امتلا به حسب اوعیهemtelā' be ḥasab-e aw‛īyyeQuantitative PlethoraPlethora caused by a change in quantity of matterFilling of body cavities (e.g., vessels) due to an increase in the quantity of the humors (or other bodily matters) to the extent that generates physical signs of increase in quantity, such as pressure and distention (e.g., vascular distension).
110سوء مزاجsū'-e mezāj; sū' al-mizāǧDystemperamentPathological preponderance of one of the four qualities; DyscrasiaThe predominance of one or more of the four qualities (hotness, coldness, wetness, and dryness) over the temperament (Mizaj) of the organ/body in a way that affects its natural functioning.
111سوء مزاج سادهsū'-e mezāj-e sādeSimple dystemperamentDystemperament due to a change in qualityA change in the quality of the organ/body in a way that affects its natural functioning, without an increase in matter/humor.
112سوء مزاج مادیsū'-e mezāj-e māddīMaterial dystemperamentDystemperament due to an increase in the quantity of matterA change in the quality of the organ/body due to an increase in matter/humor in a way that affects its natural functioning.
113کمودتkomūdat; kumūdahSwarthinessDarkening of colorMild darkening and dullness in color
114بحرانboḥrān; buḥrānCrisisAbrupt change towards recovery or worsening (of disease)A state in which an abrupt change occurs in the course of the disease either in the direction of recovery or worsening.
115احتقانeḥteqān; iḥtiqānCongestionAbnormal retentionAbnormal retention of matter in the body
116دوارdovār; duwārVertigoA feeling of spinningA state in which one feels that either oneself or one's surroundings are spinning resulting in imbalance.
117سدرsadar; sadarBlackout dizzinessLightheadednessLightheadedness (usually when getting up) which can result in vertigo and falling.
118ربوrabv; rabwRabwDyspnea on exertionDyspnea on exertion, struggling to breathe in such conditions as asthma and COPD
119تریاقteryāq; tiryāqTheriacAntidote tonicA health-maintaining tonic medication that acts as antidote to various poisons by strengthening the innate heat.
120غمزghamz; ġamzGhamzPressure point massageOf manual therapies in which pressure is applied to specific points on the body
121دلکdalk; dalkMassageRubbing a body surfaceOf manual therapies in which a certain surface of the body is rubbed
122نکسnoks; nuksExacerbationFlaring up of the disease during convalescenceFlaring up of the disease during convalescence and before a full recovery is obtained
123عود‛od; ‛awdRelapseRecurrence of the diseaseRecurrence of the disease
124سوء هاضمهsū'-e hāḍemeSee sū'-e haḍm
125سوء هضمsū'-e haḍmImpaired digestionImpaired digestion, a type of indigestion/maldigestionA type of dyspepsia in which digestion does not occur properly and the food acquires abnormal qualities in the stomach
126فساد هضمfesād-e haḍmCorruption of Digestion; See sū'-e haḍm
127نقصان هضمnoghṣān-e haḍmIncomplete DigestionIncomplete DigestionA type of dyspepsia in which digestion does not occur completely and parts of food remain undigested in the stomach
128ضعف هضمḍa‛f-e haḍmWeakness of Digestion, See noghṣān-e haḍm
129بطلان هضمboṭlān-e haḍmApepsiaAbsence of DigestionA type of dyspepsia in which there is a total lack of digestion and all of the food remains undigested in the stomach
130تخمهtokhame; tuḫamaApepsia, See boṭlān-e haḍm
131منقیmonaqqīī; munaqqīīCleansing (adj); Cleanser (n.)Medicine that cleansesA medicine that cleanses the organ from waste matter
132منقیmonaqqā; munaqqāCleansedCleared of waste matterWhat has been cleared of waste matter, like seeded raisins
133صدیدṣadīd; ṣadīdIchorWatery discharge from purulent woundA mixture of watery discharge and blood that exudes from purulent wounds
134قولنجqulanj; qūlanǧColicA painful obstruction of the large intestineA painful condition of the large intestine caused by its obstruction
135ایلاوسīlā'us; 'īlā'ūs'īlā'ūsA painful obstruction of the small intestineA painful condition of the small intestine that results from its obstruction; Compare qūlanǧ
136مفرحmofarreḥ; mufarriḥExhilarantA tonic medicine that causes exhilaration and elimination of sadnessA medicine that exhilarates and eliminates sadness by tempering the temperament, attenuating humors and moving pneuma and blood to the surface of the body. Used moderately, it is a tonic for the heart and the brain.
137سحنهsaḥna; saḥnaMienThe external state of the body and faceThe form and appearance of the body and face from which the quality of the make-up of the body (in terms of being fat/slim, loose/robust) can be discerned.
138شبقšabaq; šabaqLecheryExcess of lustExcess of sexual desire
139قیحqaiḥ; qaiḥPusPurulent excretion from a woundA thick, runny and purulent excretion that exudes from a wound and is not mixed with blood.
140فاترfāter; fātirLukewarmModerately warmAnything (mainly water) that is moderately warm
141کلفkalaf; kalafMelasmaHyperpigmented patchy lesionDarkness of skin color (mainly on the face) in the form of hyperpigmented patches of small sesame-like spots and mostly not accompanied by obvious roughness or dryness. It originates from putrid, burnt blood.
142نمشnamash; namašMaculeReddish speckled lesionFlat, red speckled lesions caused by melancholic blood.
143برشbarash; barašLentigoBlack papular spot lesionRaised, black speckled lesions resulting from melancholic blood.
144بهق ابیضbahaq-e abyaḍ; bahaq abyaḍWhite BahaqRound or oval hypopigmented lesionsWhite flat lesions with fine sclaes resulting from thin matter that might include a range of skin disroders such as curable white Baraṣ, vitiligo, Tinea versicolor, and pitryasis alba.
145بهق اسودbahaq-e asvad; bahaq aswadBlack BahaqRound or oval hyperpigmented lesionsDark flat non-scaling lesions resulting from melanchole (black bile) that might include a range of skin disorders such as curable black Baraṣ, Tinea versicolor, pityriasis nigra, etc.
146برص ابیضbaraṣ-e abyaḍ; baraṣ abyaḍWhite BaraṣVitiligoWhite flat non-scaling lesions resulted from the phlegm humor, where the hair color turns to white and might include a range of skin disorders such as Tinea versicolor, pitryasis alba, etc.
147برص اسودbaraṣ-e asvad; baraṣ aswadBlack BaraṣScaling Qūbā
148قوباqūbā; qūbāQūbāRed or black rough lesionsRed or black rough lesions accompanied by itching and pain that might include a range of skin disorders such as psoriasis, dermatophytosis, etc.
149هیضهhayḍa; hayḍaHayḍaAcute concommitant diarrhea and vomitingAcute concommitant diarrhea and vomiting resembling gastroentritis
150نفثnafth; nafṯSputumPhlegm expectorated from the respiratory tractsPhlegm expectorated from the respiratory tracts
151نفث الدمnafth al-damm; nafṯ ad-dammHemoptysisBloody sputumExpectoration of blood originating from the respiratory tract
152کیفیات اربعهkeyfīyyat-e arba‛e; kayfīyyāt arba‛aQuadruple qualitiesQuadruple qualitiesPrimary qualitites of bodies in terms of hotness, coldness, wetness and dryness
153فسادfesād; fisādPutrefactionDecay and impairment of organsDecay in and destruction of organs or natural quality of the matter, or impairment in the natural functioning of the body or organs
154وجعvaja‛; waǧa‛PainUnpleasant discomfortHighly unpleasant discomfort caused by illness or injury
155المalam; 'alamDiscomfortUnpleasant sensory experienceA range of unpleasant sensations such as pain, itching, burning, distension, etc.
156سباتsobāt; subātHypersomniaExcessive deep sleepExcessive deep sleep, from which one is awakened only with difficulty
157سهرsahar; sahar1. Insomnia 2. Night Vigilance1. Insomnia 2. Deliberate wakefulness1. Exessive sleep deprivation 2. Deliberate nocturnal wakefulness
158لاذعlādhe‛; lāḏi‛IrritantStinging agentA medication or matter that penetrates the organs and tears some tiny parts of the organ apart, causing a sensation of stinging
159لذعladh‛; laḏ‛IrritationStinging caused by an irritantThe sensation of stinging caused by a medication or matter that is irritant
160مسخنmosakhkhen; musaḫḫinCalefacientHeating agentA heating agent for temperament
161سرطانsaraṭān; saraṭān1. Crab 2. Cancer (zodiac sign) 3. Cancer1. Crab 2. Cancer (zodiac sign) 3. Cancer1. Crab 2. The fourth zodiac sign, namely cancer 3. A hard, progressive tumefaction caused by combustion of humors, which resembles a crab, having a central mass and peripheral extensions
162مشارکتmoshārekat; mušārakaReciprocationMutual interaction of organsBilateral relation of two organs resulting in them mutually affecting one another's function
163بیماری مشارکتیbīmārī-ye moshārekatīReciprocatory diseaseDisease in an organ due to disease in anotherA disease in an organ due to dysfunction in or disease of its reciprocatory organ
164بیماری شرکیbīmārī-ye sherkīShared disease; See Reciprocatory disease
165مجاورتmojāverat; muǧāwaraAdjacencyAnatomic proximityAnatomic proximity between two organs resulting in them affecting each other's function
166محاذاتmoḥādhāt; muḥāḏātParallelismPhysioanatomic alignmentEither alignment or a combination of reciprocation and similarity between two organs due to their physioanatomic state
167معجونma‛jūn; ma‛ǧūnElectuaryKneaded medicineA paste-like dosage form kneaded from powdered medications and honey, sugar or pastes
168لعوقla‛ūq; la‛ūqLinctusMedicine licked off the fingerA compound dosage form with a consistentcy between electuary and syrup which would be licked off the finger, so that it would gradually affect the larynx and trachea
169مقطعmuqaṭṭi‛; muqaṭṭi‛ExtricantA medicine that separates and expels tenacious humorA medicine that, by virture of its heat and tenuity penetrates in between a tenacious humor and the surface of the organ to which it adheres and helps in its expulsion, without any meddling with its consistency
170ورمvaram; waramTumefactionMass or abnormal growth in a tissue or organAny mass or unnatural growth in a tissue or organ caused by inflow of matter, which can also include inflammation
171مالیخولیاmālīkhūliyā; mālīḫūliyāMelancholiaA melancholic psychiatric disorderA disease caused by the predominance of melanchole or combustion of humors, resulting in cognitive and/or mood disorders due to impairment in the functioning of the brain
172مبدرقmobadreq; mubadriqConvoy (n.)An agent that convoys a medicine to its targetA medicine that facilitates and accelerates the penetration of a matter into the target organ, by virture of breaking up its pieces while maintaining the potency of the matter and protecting it against digestion
173سدهSodde; SuddaObstructionClosing of ducts or aperturesThe closing of ducts or apertures resulting in disturbances in the transfer and exchange of materials.
174قامعqāme‛; qāmi‛SupressantSupressing agentAn agent that subjugates and supresses
175نزف الدمnazf al-damm; nazf al-dammHemorrhageInternal or external bleedingAny bleeding, either internal or external
176مدرmoderr; mudirrFluid expellantMedicine that expels fluid matterA medication that expels fluid matter through urine (a diuretic), menses, sweat, or milk
177حیضḥeyḍ; ḥayḍ1. Menses 2. Menstruation1. Menstrual discharge 2. Menstrual cycle1. The blood discharged from the uterus through the vagina during menstruation 2. A cyclical discharging of blood, secretions, and tissue debris from the uterus that recurs in nonpregnant women
178تخلخلtakhalkhol; taḫalḫulRarefactionReduction in tissue densityReduction in the density of body tissues due to generation of space between their particles with or without the entrance of a thin matter into the tissue
179انعاشen‛āsh; in‛āšEnliveningTonification of the bodyEffective tonification of the body (pneuma, faculties or innate heat) through Health Preservation or treatments leading to a significant increase in the speed and intensity of the desired improvements.
180ذبولdhobūl; ḏubūlEmaciationAbnormal thinness of the bodyAbnormal thinness and dryness of the body or organs caused by dissolution of radical moisture
181ذبول دقیdhobū-e deqqīHectic EmaciationAbnormal thinness of the body caused by hectic feverAbnormal thinness and dryness of the body or organs caused by the dissolution of both radical and secondary moisture caused by hectic fever
182تب دقtab-e deqqHectic FeverProlonged fever that makes the body thin and dryProlonged fever that heats the substance of the organs leading to thinness and dryness of the body
183هزالhozāl; huzālSlimnessThe state of being slimThe state of being slim
184نموnemov; numūwGrowthGrowthGrowth; the opposite of emaciation
185سمنseman; simanCorpulenceThe state of being fatThe state of being fat; the opposite of slimness
186سمنsamn; samnGheeButter from animal milkFat or butter made from milk
187سمینsamīn; samīnSubcutaneous fatSubcutaneous fatFat that is located under the skin in the subcutaneous tissue.
188شحمshaḥm; šaḥmVisceral fatVisceral fatFat that is located inside the body on and around the internal organs.
189اختناقekhtenāq; iḫtīnāqSuffocationAsphyxation caused by obstruction in respiratory tractsAsphyxation caused by obstruction in respiratory tracts
190اختناق رحمekhtenāq-e raḥemHysteriaA uterine disease caused by uterine laxity and retention of the menses and semenA uterine disease, literally "suffocation of uterus", caused by uterine laxity and retention of the menses and semen in which most motor faculties are suspended and a state similar to seizure and syncope occurs.
191خفقانkhafaqān; ḫafaqānPalpitationPounding heartAbnormal movements in the heart which are felt as fast beating or pounding
192کمادkemād; kimādDry poulticeHeated medicine topically appliedA solid or semi-solid matter that is heated and applied to the body.
193تکمیدtakmīd; takmīdDry poultice (v.)Application of dry poulticeLocal heating of the organ using dry poultice
194هاضمهhāḍeme; hāḍimaDigestive (faculty)Digestive abilityOne of the four natural faculties denoting the ability of the organ in the transformation of matter to humor or humor to organ.
195جاذبهjādhebe; ǧāḏibaAttractive (faculty)Attractive abilityOne of the four natural faculties denoting the ability of the organ in the absorption of beneficial matter.
196دافعهdāfe‛e; dāfi‛aExpulsive (faculty)Expulsive abilityOne of the four natural faculties denoting the ability of the organ in the expulsion of waste matter.
197ماسکهmāseke; māsikaRetentive (faculty)Retentive abilityOne of the four natural faculties denoting the ability of the organ in retainig beneficial matter.
198جوشاندهjūshandeDecoctionBoiled materia medicaA dosage form resulting from boiling of single or multiple materia medica
199دم کردهdamkardeBrew (n.)Steeped materia medicaA dosage form resulting from steeping of single or multiple materia medica in hot or boiling water
200نقوعnaqū‛; naqū‛InfusionInfused materia medicaA dosage form resulting from maceration of single or multiple materia medica in room-temperature water